The LA(1986) times had an ad for a payphone that was now more capable of performing additional tasks, thus rendering it the name, “smartphone. The Chicago Tribune (1988) had an ad for new smartphone systems to be implemented for office use. Before, businesses only had phones with the numbers 0-9. However, with the introduction of this new “smartphone system” that now included the star and pound keys, businesses can now forward, transfer, and redirect calls. The NY times(1998) was covering a company’s plan to develop software for mobile phones that behave more like computers, giving them the name “smartphones; this is where smartphones begin to modernize to our standards. All of the scholarly articles provided the use of the word “smartphone” in the same way that it is being used today(1990-present): a device that combines a cell phone with a hand-help computer, typically offering internet access, data storage, e-mail capability, etc. (Dictionary.com)
It is important to note the difference between the historical newspaper articles and the scholarly articles. The historical sources did not each provide a concrete definition of what a smartphone is (except the NY Times). Rather, each contained its own idea of a smartphone. However, despite the differences of what a smartphone is, one thing is certain: it seemed to be a device that is more capable and advanced than its predecessor.
As one can see, the use of the term “smartphone” has undergone several changes. Previously thought of as a device that can perform more tasks, a smartphone is now a hand held device with an integrated hand-held computer.